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 BERGAMA

ASKLEPİON ...ACROPOLİS...LIBRARY...THEATRE...AGORA...ARSENAL...ZEUS   MUSEUM..GOLD MINE


 

The foundation date is not known exactly but the city walls were built in 7 B.C. and it started to become urbanized according to the informations which were gotten from the archeological excavations. Its name was heard in the Anabasis of Ksenofon (355-35 2 B.C.) among the historical statements for the first time. According to the knowledges in these statements in 547 B.C., Pergamon was in the hands of the Pers who invaded Anatolia and they settled an organization there. The city which was taken by Alexand er the Great in 334 B.C. was firstly taken by Frigya-Lykya King Autigonos and then taken by King of Trakya king Philaetairos after the Alexander the Great's death. After Lysimakhos' death Philaetoiros seperated from Trakya Kingdom and found a new autonom civilization which was tied to Selevkos Kingdom, (283 B.C.). This civilization was made wholly independant by F. Eumenes (263-241 B.C.), Pergamon after half an hour century continiued to be the cultural and the managerial center of the Kingdom which it ga ve its name to. It led its brilliant period during F. Attalos and his son. Various monuments such as acropolis and theatre were erected in the city. The city went to the hold of Roman rule with its glorious library, 120.000 population and parshomen paper that was produced from the leather which the city takes its name from. It became an important center of Asian province in Roman period.

A lot of changes were made in Hadrianus period and the city was garnished with Roman structures. In the years that the Christianity was expanding, Pergamon was a center bisaopments that Byzantians tied to Ephesus and then it became a metropolitic.

The Turkish surges started in the 12th century. Although the Turk invaded the city in 1113 it lasted a short period. The city which went among the rule of Turks and Byzantians was a target for the Crusaders, for a certain period. In 1302 when the Byzanti an rule disappeared, the Karesiogullary took the control. Just after 1341 Pergamon was taken by Ottomans.

 

Pergamon which was a castle city surrounded by city walls at the top before, was surrounded in Attalos period twice, it was in the condition of being a big and a safety city and in the Roman period a panaroma of expanding to plateau was seen. It strored this physical feature when it came to Turks, besides it regained vividness and it grew as an Turk City. According to the archive records a small factoryzof grape bozashop, candle small factory at least 350 shops which its incomes belong to some certain in stitutions, a bedesten, at least three inns, four Turkish Baths and a caravansarai were placed in the city. We can list the most clear structures which endured till today and errected in Ottomans period as below:

Ulu Mosque (XIV. Century), Çukurhan (XV. Century) ,Ta?han (1432) ,Bedesten (XV. Century), Kur?unlu Mosque (1435) , Hacy Hakim Mosque (1508-1509) , Ansarly Mosque (1543) , ?adyrvanly Mosque (1550), Selimiye Mosque (1890-1891).


ARCHEOLOGICAL AREA

ACROPOLIS
The Acropolis was established on a very rectengular peak. A path that is climbed by twisting about reaches this peak which heighs nearly 300 meters. In the city settlement which is called ''Acropolis'' religious, official, social and commercial construct ions are settled concentricin its unique plan Pergamon King Palaces has been settled on this Peak that has been an inhabiting place since the First Ages to now. Five tanks and ammunition are settled this Peak. The Athena Temple laid under the construction is region. Besides Library and Trainan Temple is there The Zeus Sunac (offering place of the temple) is carefully replaced in the rerrace that lays under them and one of the most rectengular theatres of the world isset there. The Gymnasium and the temple of Demeter is located on the lowest segment. All of the constructions of Acropolis due to its topographic situation stand in line from South to North, with the result of the compelling of the city path. However they are turned to the west in order to be seen by main front. The Zeus Sunac was not encircled by the colonaids in order to be seen from everyside. The sides that look to the meadow of the Agora and Athena Temenosare left open. Although these constructions were errected in various periods that la sted 150 years, the city shows a regular plan and a very succesful techtonic composition.

The theatre that the every kind of cultural movements were exhibited formed the center of techtonic composition an probably it was not by chance.

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ATHENA TEMPLE
Athena Temple that was erected on the terrace of the theatre, is an erection on 6*10 columned Dore, Merely certain items of the groundwork of the temple were stored partially to 120 m. height. Some parts of the temple's columns and architrav are still i n Berlin Museum.

It is a settled custom of the Western Anatolian that the most important temple of the city belongs to Goddess Athena is a reflection of Izmir, Milet, Erythrai, Foça, Assos's tradition. Athena ordered 2 staged stoas to be built along the temple's Eastern and Northern sides after the victorieous wars against the second Eumenes Seleukos, Galats and Macedonians. These were errected with Hellenistic style.


THE LIBRARY

The attached errection that in the North of Athena sanctified region are ruins of the famous Pergamon Library. The library which was excessed from the top floor of the galery before belongs to the 2nd Eumenes Era and it has a big, 13.53*15.35 dimensional reading room. The Athena sculpture that was 3.50 meters height situated in this library which was furnished with wooden-ledges. This sculpture is preserved in the Berlin Museum today. The great rival of the library which affluenced in the 2nd Eumenes Era was the library of Iskenderiye. The Pergamons discovered parshomen as a result of the prevention of the exportation of papirus by Egyptians. This the first parshomen of the world was used in Pergamon.

Antonius, gifted the library that had 200.000 books to Cleopatra, however this prosperous treasure doomed with the burning of the Iskenderiye Library.

THE PALACES
The ruins which belong to the Palaces of Pergamon Kings localized the southern side of the library and stoas that side of the library and stoas that surrounded Athena Temple. These were two great houses of peristyle type that had courtyards in the middle it is consented that the small one on the North belonged to Attolos and the bigger one was built in Eumenes Era. The Mosaic parts which were found in the palaces are stored presently in Berlin Museum.


THE ARSENALS
The Arsenals which were also known as military property depot were located on the Northern end of the acropolis and further than palaces and trajaneun about 10 m. Lower. These are five long parallel errections. 13 differenet volumes of andezit shells wer e obtained in them. These shells were presently preserved at down Agora in open air. The northern corner of the Acropolis which the Arsenals were found soveigned the encompassment. Besides it was situated in a place that the enemies coming closer could no t see it. It was in a very convenient condition as to defend the city.

TRAJANEUM
The temple which were made for the godfied Roman Emperor Trajon, is on the highest terrace. It is undoubtful that, there had been a Hellenistic structure in there before. The temple that was surrounded with stoas by the three sides, rises on a 68*58m. D imensional terrace. The 6*9 columned, peripteros temple is Korint style. It reminds the Dionysos Temple which located on the terrace of the theatre with its podium and the steps of the front side, whereas it is similiar to Roman samples due to its feature s. The temple was ordered to be erected by hadrian for Trajan. However it is understood that, two Emperors were worshipped together in this place because the collosol marbles heads of the sculptures of Trajan and Hadrian was found in the temple. These are found in Berlin Museum.

 


THE THEATRE

The Pergamon Theatre was built on a steep slope and is one of the most elegant architectural constructions of the Hellenistic era. Being the steepest theatre of Western Anatolia, it has a capacity of holding 10.000 people. The part where the viewers sit are made up of 80 rows the row on the very top is 36 m. Higher than the level place of the orchestra. The stage part was made of wood in the Hellenistic era and was only set up on play days and was taken down later.

THE DIONYSUS TEMPLE
The people of Pergamon built the glorious temple on the north of the 250m. High theatre's terrace, where it would be dominent of the whole touring area. The rich profile of the temple, which was well protected like its altar area, is a prostylos that ris es on a platform in an Ionian order. Being on the end point of a long road and also being an attractive monument it makes up the first step of the Roman Art style together with the European Baroc architectures city planning. The temple underwent a great c hange in the Roman era. Original pieces belonging to the Hellenistic period and the Roman era are preserved in the Berlin Museum.

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THE ZEUS ALTAR

It was situated about 25m. Down the lower terrace of the Athena temple. This place was about 69*77 m. Big and rose right in the center. Most probably four sides of the altar were open and the monument was seen easily from everywhere. This large and impor tant construction of the Pergamon Acropolis during the most successful times of the Kingdom, when the second Eumenes was King. The horseshoe shaped Pergamon Altar has close counterparts in the Menderes Magnesiasa and Prien. The altar is a monument that ha s combined the arts of architecture an sculpture in the best way. Here the reliefs are not in the second place.They are as important as the altar itself. Today only the base of the altar can be seen. All the architectural pieces and reliefs can be seen in the Berlin Museum.


THE AGORA

The Agora is found on the south of the Zeus Altar. It belongs to the Hellenistic period. The Agora which belongs to Hermes the God of trade, was built in the Dor style. The walls of the agora are three layers on the outside and only one layer on the outs ide because of the topographic circumstances. The city road passed through the Agora. The base of the Demeter temple can be seen on the west side of the area.

THE GYMNASIUMS
The city of Pergamon had a splendid Gymnasium that is found on top of each other on three separate terraces. It is know from the inscriptions that were found that the bottom terrace belonged to the children. The middle terrace to the teenagers and the to p one was the adults. The gymnasium on the top was called the Ceremony Gymnasium. The three gymnasiums were built in the period of the kingdom before the 3rd century B.C.

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ASKLEPION
Asklepions, who was known as the god of health and medicine, was one of Apollo's sons. Asklepion, meaning Asklepios's place, was an important health center in Pergamon in the early ages. Asklepion is reached by a street that is lined with columns. Here t here are different kinds of curing methods: healing waters, mud cures, sports, theatre,and a library. A bazaar is organized every year in the restored theatre. The construction on the left side near the entrance is the asklepios temple. The temple, which was made in the name of the health god with donations in 150 A.D. is covered by a dome and its walls are 3 m. Thick. The inside is ornamented with mozaiks which have colorful marble interiors.

In the middle of the Asklepios area which is circumscribed on three sides, there is an 80 m. Long passage that stretches from teh sacred fountain to the curing building. From this passage one can

>pass to the circular construction of medical cures. The so und of the water and the inspirations in the passage helped the sick people get better. There are 6 apsids in the curing building.


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THE SERAPYS TEMPLE
The largest construction in Ancient Pergamon is the temple that was devoted to the Egyptians' gods. It was built with red bricks and is called the red courtyard by the people. It covers an area of 260*100 m. Along with the lalrge courtyard in front of th e temple. It is a structure with basilika absids and 3 nephs. The temple opens up to a courtyard through two constructions with towers. The pools inside the temple and the two constructions show that there were another religion besides that of the Helens and the Romans. It is believed that the Egyptians devoted it to the underground god serapis, because the temple, which is decorated with Egyptian styled statues, is facing west. The temple was erected in the time of the emperor Hadrian. The main structure was changed into a church with changes made especially in the absid area. Then it was devoted to the Apostel Johannes.


THE BERGAMA MUSEUM

The Archaeological Museum and Ethnographical Museum was first found in todays Peoples Education center in 1924 by Osman Bayatly. Later the construction of todays modern building began in 1933 and with the help of the German Archeological Institute it was completed in 1936.

In the museum there are 10516 works of art. Of these 5350 are archaeologic, 1936 are ethnographic and 3201 are coins. There are also 24 court registrations and 5 seals. The archaeologic works belong to the Archaic, Classic, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzanti an periods. The Ethnographic works are made of materials belonging to the Ottoman period and Bergama region stells and sycopages are displayed in the outer yard of the museum. In the inner yard architectural pieces in chronological order (architravs, colu mns and column capitals) , low reliefs, colossal sculptures and stone inscriptions are displayed. In the first archaeologic salon: Bronze Age Cremics (yortan), archaic, classic (Pitane ceramics), Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantian (Pergamon, Greneum, Myrine ce ramics) marble statuettes and coins are displayed. In the second archaeologic salon: Roman period glass objects, ceramic objects,

portraits, mozaik floors with Medusas picture and architectural decoration works are displayed. In the ethnographic salon:Weawing looms of the 18th and 20th century and sp ecific examples of the peoples culture are displayed. In the list museums in Izmir and its provinces the Bergama Museum attracts the most tourists after Ephesus Museum.

 

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