BERGAMAASKLEPİON ...ACROPOLİS...LIBRARY...THEATRE...AGORA...ARSENAL...ZEUS MUSEUM..GOLD MINE
The foundation date is not known exactly but the city walls were built in 7 B.C. and it started to become urbanized according to the informations which were gotten from the archeological excavations. Its name was heard in the Anabasis of Ksenofon (355-35 2 B.C.) among the historical statements for the first time. According to the knowledges in these statements in 547 B.C., Pergamon was in the hands of the Pers who invaded Anatolia and they settled an organization there. The city which was taken by Alexand er the Great in 334 B.C. was firstly taken by Frigya-Lykya King Autigonos and then taken by King of Trakya king Philaetairos after the Alexander the Great's death. After Lysimakhos' death Philaetoiros seperated from Trakya Kingdom and found a new autonom civilization which was tied to Selevkos Kingdom, (283 B.C.). This civilization was made wholly independant by F. Eumenes (263-241 B.C.), Pergamon after half an hour century continiued to be the cultural and the managerial center of the Kingdom which it ga ve its name to. It led its brilliant period during F. Attalos and his son. Various monuments such as acropolis and theatre were erected in the city. The city went to the hold of Roman rule with its glorious library, 120.000 population and parshomen paper that was produced from the leather which the city takes its name from. It became an important center of Asian province in Roman period.
A lot of changes were made in Hadrianus period and the city was garnished with Roman structures. In the years that the Christianity was expanding, Pergamon was a center bisaopments that Byzantians tied to Ephesus and then it became a metropolitic.
The Turkish surges started in the 12th century. Although the Turk invaded the city in 1113 it lasted a short period. The city which went among the rule of Turks and Byzantians was a target for the Crusaders, for a certain period. In 1302 when the Byzanti an rule disappeared, the Karesiogullary took the control. Just after 1341 Pergamon was taken by Ottomans.
Pergamon which was a castle city surrounded by city walls at the top before, was surrounded in Attalos period twice, it was in the condition of being a big and a safety city and in the Roman period a panaroma of expanding to plateau was seen. It strored this physical feature when it came to Turks, besides it regained vividness and it grew as an Turk City. According to the archive records a small factoryzof grape bozashop, candle small factory at least 350 shops which its incomes belong to some certain in stitutions, a bedesten, at least three inns, four Turkish Baths and a caravansarai were placed in the city. We can list the most clear structures which endured till today and errected in Ottomans period as below:
Ulu Mosque (XIV. Century), Çukurhan (XV. Century) ,Ta?han (1432) ,Bedesten (XV. Century), Kur?unlu Mosque (1435) , Hacy Hakim Mosque (1508-1509) , Ansarly Mosque (1543) , ?adyrvanly Mosque (1550), Selimiye Mosque (1890-1891).
The Acropolis was established on a very rectengular peak. A path that is climbed by twisting about reaches this peak which heighs nearly 300 meters. In the city settlement which is called ''Acropolis'' religious, official, social and commercial construct ions are settled concentricin its unique plan Pergamon King Palaces has been settled on this Peak that has been an inhabiting place since the First Ages to now. Five tanks and ammunition are settled this Peak. The Athena Temple laid under the construction is region. Besides Library and Trainan Temple is there The Zeus Sunac (offering place of the temple) is carefully replaced in the rerrace that lays under them and one of the most rectengular theatres of the world isset there. The Gymnasium and the temple of Demeter is located on the lowest segment. All of the constructions of Acropolis due to its topographic situation stand in line from South to North, with the result of the compelling of the city path. However they are turned to the west in order to be seen by main front. The Zeus Sunac was not encircled by the colonaids in order to be seen from everyside. The sides that look to the meadow of the Agora and Athena Temenosare left open. Although these constructions were errected in various periods that la sted 150 years, the city shows a regular plan and a very succesful techtonic composition.
The theatre that the every kind of cultural movements were exhibited formed the center of techtonic composition an probably it was not by chance.
Athena Temple that was erected on the terrace of the theatre, is an erection on 6*10 columned Dore, Merely certain items of the groundwork of the temple were stored partially to 120 m. height. Some parts of the temple's columns and architrav are still i n Berlin Museum.
It is a settled custom of the Western Anatolian that the most important temple of the city belongs to Goddess Athena is a reflection of Izmir, Milet, Erythrai, Foça, Assos's tradition. Athena ordered 2 staged stoas to be built along the temple's Eastern and Northern sides after the victorieous wars against the second Eumenes Seleukos, Galats and Macedonians. These were errected with Hellenistic style.
The attached errection that in the North of Athena sanctified region are ruins of the famous Pergamon Library. The library which was excessed from the top floor of the galery before belongs to the 2nd Eumenes Era and it has a big, 13.53*15.35 dimensional reading room. The Athena sculpture that was 3.50 meters height situated in this library which was furnished with wooden-ledges. This sculpture is preserved in the Berlin Museum today. The great rival of the library which affluenced in the 2nd Eumenes Era was the library of Iskenderiye. The Pergamons discovered parshomen as a result of the prevention of the exportation of papirus by Egyptians. This the first parshomen of the world was used in Pergamon.
Antonius, gifted the library that had 200.000 books to Cleopatra, however this prosperous treasure doomed with the burning of the Iskenderiye Library.
The Pergamon Theatre was built on a steep slope and is one of the most elegant architectural constructions of the Hellenistic era. Being the steepest theatre of Western Anatolia, it has a capacity of holding 10.000 people. The part where the viewers sit are made up of 80 rows the row on the very top is 36 m. Higher than the level place of the orchestra. The stage part was made of wood in the Hellenistic era and was only set up on play days and was taken down later.
THE DIONYSUS TEMPLE
It was situated about 25m. Down the lower terrace of the Athena temple. This place was about 69*77 m. Big and rose right in the center. Most probably four sides of the altar were open and the monument was seen easily from everywhere. This large and impor tant construction of the Pergamon Acropolis during the most successful times of the Kingdom, when the second Eumenes was King. The horseshoe shaped Pergamon Altar has close counterparts in the Menderes Magnesiasa and Prien. The altar is a monument that ha s combined the arts of architecture an sculpture in the best way. Here the reliefs are not in the second place.They are as important as the altar itself. Today only the base of the altar can be seen. All the architectural pieces and reliefs can be seen in the Berlin Museum.
The Agora is found on the south of the Zeus Altar. It belongs to the Hellenistic period. The Agora which belongs to Hermes the God of trade, was built in the Dor style. The walls of the agora are three layers on the outside and only one layer on the outs ide because of the topographic circumstances. The city road passed through the Agora. The base of the Demeter temple can be seen on the west side of the area.
In the middle of the Asklepios area which is circumscribed on three sides, there is an 80 m. Long passage that stretches from teh sacred fountain to the curing building. From this passage one can
>pass to the circular construction of medical cures. The so und of the water and the inspirations in the passage helped the sick people get better. There are 6 apsids in the curing building.
THE SERAPYS TEMPLE
|THE BERGAMA MUSEUM
The Archaeological Museum and Ethnographical Museum was first found in todays Peoples Education center in 1924 by Osman Bayatly. Later the construction of todays modern building began in 1933 and with the help of the German Archeological Institute it was completed in 1936.
In the museum there are 10516 works of art. Of these 5350 are archaeologic, 1936 are ethnographic and 3201 are coins. There are also 24 court registrations and 5 seals. The archaeologic works belong to the Archaic, Classic, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzanti an periods. The Ethnographic works are made of materials belonging to the Ottoman period and Bergama region stells and sycopages are displayed in the outer yard of the museum. In the inner yard architectural pieces in chronological order (architravs, colu mns and column capitals) , low reliefs, colossal sculptures and stone inscriptions are displayed. In the first archaeologic salon: Bronze Age Cremics (yortan), archaic, classic (Pitane ceramics), Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantian (Pergamon, Greneum, Myrine ce ramics) marble statuettes and coins are displayed. In the second archaeologic salon: Roman period glass objects, ceramic objects,
portraits, mozaik floors with Medusas picture and architectural decoration works are displayed. In the ethnographic salon:Weawing looms of the 18th and 20th century and sp ecific examples of the peoples culture are displayed. In the list museums in Izmir and its provinces the Bergama Museum attracts the most tourists after Ephesus Museum.